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Management of rare coagulation disorders in 2018

Published:October 30, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2018.10.009

      Abstract

      Rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) comprise inherited deficiencies of factors I (fibrinogen), II (prothrombin), V, VII, X, XI, and XIII as well as combined factor V + VIII and vitamin K-dependent factors. They represent 3–5% of all congenital bleeding disorders and are usually transmitted as autosomal recessive traits. These disorders often manifest during childhood and have varied clinical presentations from mucocutaneous bleeding to life-threatening symptoms such as central nervous system and gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding manifestations generally vary within the same RBD and may also vary from 1 RBD to the other. Laboratory diagnosis is based on coagulation screening tests and specific factor assays, with molecular techniques providing diagnostic accuracy and enabling prenatal counseling. The approach to treatment of bleeding episodes and invasive procedures needs to be individualized and depends on the severity, frequency and procedure-related risk of bleeding. The first line of treatment of RBDs is replacement of the deficient factor, using specific plasma-derived or recombinant products and using fresh frozen plasma or cryoprecipitate when specific products are not available or in resource-limited countries. Prophylaxis may be considered in individuals with recurrent serious bleeding and especially after life-threatening bleeding episodes. Novel no-replacement strategies promoting hemostasis by through different mechanisms need to be studied in RBDs as alternative therapeutic options.

      Keywords

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