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High titers of anti-A1 and anti-B antibodies among Peruvian group O platelet donors

Published:December 09, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2021.103341

      Highlights

      • Critical antibody titers in group O apheresis platelet donors were measured.
      • Anti-A1/B IgM antibodies were titered by the direct hemagglutination method.
      • Anti-A1/B IgG antibodies were titered by the solid-phase adherence method.
      • One in two or three platelet donors had at least one critical titer.

      Abstract

      Critical antibody titers have been described as factors associated with hemolysis in ABO plasma-incompatible platelet (PLT) transfusions. This study was carried out to describe the frequency of high-titers anti-A and antiB IgM and IgG antibodies in group O apheresis platelet donors, and to explore differences according to the donor characteristics. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Blood Bank of a National Hospital in Peru from January to March 2019. IgM and IgG antibodies against A1 and B antigens were quantified in 339 platelet donors using the direct hemagglutination technique and the solid-phase adherence technique, respectively. For analysis purposes, two cut-off points; ≥128 and ≥64, were used to define a critical titer for IgM due to a lack of consensus. An IgG titer of ≥256 was also defined as critical. Of the donors, 22.1 % had critical IgM titers when the cut-off point was defined as ≥128. However, when the IgM cut-off was ≥64, the frequency of platelet donors with critical titers increased to 54.0 %. The frequency of donors with critical IgG titers was 23.5 %. Higher IgG titers were associated with female donors while higher IgM titers were negative associated with age. One in two or three platelet donors, depending on the cutoff point used to define a critical IgM titer, had at least one critical titer of anti-A or anti-B antibodies. Early identification of platelet donors with critical antibody titers could prevent passive transfusion of ABO antibodies to non-isogroup recipients.

      Keywords

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