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Trends of Infectious Disease Markers Among Healthy Blood Donors In Northern India: A Ten Year Study

      Abstract

      Objective

      Transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) is a major hazard for blood transfusion. The present retrospective chart review was undertaken to study the demographic profile and TTI trends among blood donors to see impact of interventions on blood safety.

      Methods

      Data of donors and TTI screening results from 2010 to 2019 were analyzed. Degree of significance was determined by Chi square test.

      Results

      Out of 1,68,570 donors, 33,227 (19.7%) were voluntary and 1,35,343 (80.3%) were replacement with 2.8% females and 54% belonging to the age group 18–29 years. Voluntary donation increased by only 3% in ten years and total reactivity rate was 1.6%. The reactive rate for all infections was 0.8% in volunteer donors and 1.95% in replacement donors (p-value < 0.001). The prevalence of HBsAg, HCV, HIV and syphilis showed a significant decline from 2010 to 2014. Of the donors who were reactive for HBV, 8.7% were missed by ELISA but detected by NAT. Donor reactivity for malaria remained the same in this period.

      Conclusion

      Newer strategies and effort to increase voluntary donation helping the general public adopt a healthy lifestyle is urgently needed in India. Higher prevalence of TTI among replacement donors is substantiated by this study. Role of counseling of donors cannot be overemphasized. Utility of malaria screening for blood donors needs to be reexamined by evaluating evidences from other blood banks. A rational policy approach, based on a careful assessment of epidemiological data, cost effectiveness analysis, and opinion of stakeholders is necessary for universal adoption of NAT.

      Keywords

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