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Assessment of extracorporeal photopheresis related cell damage

  • Author Footnotes
    1 ORCID: 0000-0003-3226-0504
    Bahadir M. Samur
    Footnotes
    1 ORCID: 0000-0003-3226-0504
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 ORCID: 0000-0001-9858-3272
    Cigdem Karakukcu
    Footnotes
    2 ORCID: 0000-0001-9858-3272
    Affiliations
    Department of Biochemistry, Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey

    Drug Application and Research Center, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey
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  • Author Footnotes
    3 ORCID: 0000-0002-6100-1205
    Alper Ozcan
    Footnotes
    3 ORCID: 0000-0002-6100-1205
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, KANKA Pediatric Hematology & Oncolgy Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey
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  • Author Footnotes
    4 ORCID: 0000-0002-2691-4826
    Ekrem Unal
    Footnotes
    4 ORCID: 0000-0002-2691-4826
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, KANKA Pediatric Hematology & Oncolgy Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey

    Erciyes University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gevher Nesibe Genome and Stem Cell Institution, Genome and Stem Cell Center (GENKOK), Kayseri, Turkey

    Erciyes University, Department of Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine, Health Science Institution, Kayseri, Turkey
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  • Author Footnotes
    5 ORCID: 0000-0003-4802-0986
    Ebru Yilmaz
    Footnotes
    5 ORCID: 0000-0003-4802-0986
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, KANKA Pediatric Hematology & Oncolgy Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey
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  • Author Footnotes
    6 ORCID: 0000-0003-2015-3541
    Musa Karakukcu
    Correspondence
    Correspondence to: Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, 38039 Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey.
    Footnotes
    6 ORCID: 0000-0003-2015-3541
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, KANKA Pediatric Hematology & Oncolgy Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 ORCID: 0000-0003-3226-0504
    2 ORCID: 0000-0001-9858-3272
    3 ORCID: 0000-0002-6100-1205
    4 ORCID: 0000-0002-2691-4826
    5 ORCID: 0000-0003-4802-0986
    6 ORCID: 0000-0003-2015-3541

      Abstract

      Aim

      Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) is emphasized chiefly as it has a high safety profile. However, the genotoxic effects of ECP are not known. This experimental study aimed to assess the potential genotoxic impact of ECP treatment by the AKLIDES system, a new generation standardized and automated evaluation method.

      Materials and Methods

      Buffy coats were obtained from the blood of 26 healthy volunteers, and ECP was applied to 2 j/cm2 UV-A for two hours. After the DNA isolation procedure, all slides were stained with DAPI to visualize lymphocytes, FITC for visualization of damage foci marker (γH2AX), and APC for visualization of repair foci marker (53BP1). With the AKLIDES imaging system, all parameters were evaluated.

      Results

      Median damage marker Foci γ-H2AX before and after ECP were 11.42 and 18.65 arbitrary units, respectively (p = 0.153). Median repair marker foci 53BP1 (repair biomarker) before and after ECP were measured as 4.17 and 6.7 arbitrary units. The difference was also not statistically significant (p = 0.088). Although 58 % of cells were affected by ECP irradiation, as shown by FITC fluorescent staining, no statistical difference was found in any genotoxicity parameters.

      Conclusion

      We found an increase in the foci γ-H2AX parameter, one of the objective indicators of DNA breaks, and an increase in the foci 53BP1 parameter, which indicates the post-damage repair mechanisms after ECP. However, further in vitro, and in vivo studies are needed with large sample volumes to demonstrate the significance.

      Abbreviations:

      ECP (Extracorporeal photochemotherapy), UV-A (Ultraviolet-A), DSBs (Double-strand breaks), γH2AX (Phosphorylated histone H2AX), 51BP1 (p53-binding protein), 8-MOP (8-Methoxsalen), FTIC (Fluorescein isothiocyanate), DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), JACIE (The Joint Accreditation Committee ISCT-Europe & EBMT)

      Keywords

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