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Influence of immunohematological markers on severity of in vivo hemolysis in human warm autoimmune haemolytic anemia

      Abstract

      Autoantibody production in autoimmune haemolytic anemia (AIHA) is the result of the loss of self-immunological tolerance of the host. Here we investigated the various immunohematological markers that may influence the severity of in vivo hemolysis in warm AIHA (WAIHA). Complete direct antiglobulin test (DAT) evaluation and immunohematological characterization were performed in 247 patients of WAIHA following departmental protocols. Clinical and laboratory details of patients were obtained from patient file. The median age of WAIHA patients was 47 years with a female preponderance. Lymphoproliferative diseases were the major underlying causes of secondary WAIHA. The mean haemoglobin (Hb) and reticulocyte count (Retic) were 6.43 gm/dL and 7.58% respectively. Single autoantibody bound to red cells was investigated in 151 patients. The main IgG subclass was IgG1. Multiple autoantibodies like IgG+ C, IgG+IgA and IgG+IgA+C were found in 87 (35.2%) patients. Free autoantibodies were observed in 112 patients with a median indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) reactivity of 2+. Derangement of haematological and biochemical values was statistically significant with increase in DAT reactivity, presence of multiple autoantibodies on red cells, coating of red cells by IgG3 or multiple IgG subclass, higher DAT dilution and increasing IAT reactivity. We conclude that several important but simple immunohematological parameters may influence the degree of in vivo hemolysis in WAIHA. Since a set of common haematological and biochemical test determines the severity of in vivo hemolysis therefore a comprehensive clinical and immunohematological evaluation is advisable for a correct diagnostic and therapeutic workup of WAIHA.

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