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Role of Thromboelastogram in monitoring the activation of the coagulation pathway and assessing the associated risk factors for hypercoagulable state in transfusion dependent thalassemia patients

Published:October 18, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2022.103583

      Highlights

      • Transfusion dependent thalassemia patients have a hypercoagulable status compared to age matched reference range.
      • Annual blood transfusion requirement was found to have a negative correlation with the hypercoagulable status.
      • Screening thalassemia patients with TEG may help to identify high risk thrombotic group.

      Abstract

      Background

      Thromboembolic events are rare but one of the fatal complications in thalassemia. Assessment of the hypercoagulable state is not done regularly, and we have assessed the utility of Thromboelastography (TEG) for monitoring the activation of the coagulation pathway in patients with thalassemia.

      Methodology

      A prospective single-center cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care set-up. Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia patients registered with the pediatric unit were screened for hypercoagulability using TEG during six months of the study period and followed up for three years for the development of thromboembolic events. Patient demographics, history of splenectomy, Serum ferritin levels and annual red cell transfusion requirement (mL/kg/year) were assessed. TEG parameters used were R time, K time, alpha angle, Maximum amplitude, Clot index, and Lysis 30. The thrombin generation test (V Curve) obtained from the first-degree derivate of the TEG velocity curve was also used for analysis.

      Results

      A total of 34 patients were recruited during the six months study period with an average age of 10.6 years ( ± 5.47). The average pre-transfusion hemoglobin level and the volume of packed red cells received were 7.24 g/dL and 152.82 mL/kg/year respectively. The TEG tracing was suggestive of a hypercoagulable state in 58.82% of patients. The mean values of angle (70.74), MA (64.16), CI (2.65) and TG (774.43) in TDT patients compared to age matched reference range (62.81, 57.99, 0.8, 577.83 respectively) was suggestive of prothrombotic changes. Annual blood transfusion requirement was negatively correlated with hypercoagulable status (‐0.344, CI= -0.68 to 0.08). One out of 34 patients developed corona radiata infarct (with annual blood requirement; 112.7 mL/kg/Year). The risk to develop a hypercoagulable state appeared to be higher when the volume of RBCs transfused was less than 154 mL/kg/Year.

      Conclusion

      TDT patients are at risk of developing thromboembolism, and screening with TEG may be useful to identify those at high risk.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      TEG (Thromboelastography), TDT (Transfusion Dependent Thalasemia), NTDT (Non Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia), TE (Thromboembolic Events), TM (Thalassemia Major), TI (Thalassemia Intermedia), MA (Maximum Amplitude), CI (Clot Index), MRTG (Maximum Rate of Thrombus Generation), TMRTG (Time to Maximum Rate of Thrombus Generation), TG (Thrombus Generated)
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